## Research Themes  
# Social Learning

Combining different strands of research is investigate learning in social environments. Building upon the computational learning models and the social preference models applied in Game Theory we developed a novel computational account of learning in competitive environment. The model suggests that people may not only maximize financial but also social goals (status). Furthermore, we have shown that the extend that people value social outcomes was associated with increased functional coupling between social brain regions (TPJ) and valuation brain regions (striatum and vmPFC), as well as increased basal testosterone in men. Currently we are extending these findings by relating them to pubertal hormones, oxytocin and social influence on adolescent risk-taking.

  1. Cardoos S.L., Suleiman A.B., Johnson M, van den Bos, W., Hinshaw S.P., Dahl R.E. (2017) Social status strategy in early adolescent girls: Testosterone and value-based decision making Psychoneuroendocrinology
  2. van den Bos, W., Talwar, A., & McClure, S.M. (2013) Neural correlates of reinforcement learning and social preferences in competitive bidding. Journal of Neuroscience. 33(5): 2137-2146
  3. van den Bos, W., Golka, P., Effelsberg., D., McClure, S.M. (2013) Pyrrhic Victories: The Need for Social Status Drives Costly Competitive Behavior. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
# Science of Learning & Development

In our studies we use computational learning models in combination with neuroimaging techniques to further specify learning processes that change across development. Our results showed that there is a shift in the balance of weights attributed to positive vs. negative feedback across adolescence, which was associated with increased functional coupling between the striatum and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). In addition we found that even in simple learning paradigms there are difference in learning strategies and feedback processes in relation to IQ and level of education. Our findings on reward learning formed the starting point for further investigating learning in social context as well as differences in basic learning mechanisms related to clinical conditions.

  1. Hanson, J., van den Bos, W., Roeber, B., Davidson, R. & Pollak, S. (2016) Early adversity and learning: Implications for typical and atypical behavioral development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
  2. van den Bos, W., Crone, E. A., & Güroğlu, B. (2012) Brain function during feedback-based learning in relation to IQ and education. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 2(1), 78-89.
  3. van den Bos, W., Cohen, M.X., Kahnt, T. & Crone, E. A. (2011). Striatum-medial prefrontal cortex connectivity predicts developmental changes in reinforcement learning. Cerebral Cortex
# Impulsive and Risky Decision-Making

Adolescence stands out as a particularly interesting developmental period because impulsive and risky behavior seems to be greater at this age than during childhood or adulthood. This increased impulsivity is a part of healthy development and is thought to be crucial for the acquisition of skills needed for adult life but also leads to unhealthy outcomes. My investigations have focused on the different processes involved in risky and intertemporal decisions making and how their different developmental trajectories are related to changes in behavior and brain (specifically focused on cortico-strial connections). My current research is aimed at better understand different the role of pubertal testosterone and emotion on impulsive choice, as well as investigating developmental trajectories of behavior in relation to different types of uncertainty.

  1. Laube, C., Suleiman A.B., Johnson M, Dahl R.E.& van den Bos, W. (2017). Dissociable Effects of Age and Testosterone on Adolescent Impatience. Psychoneuroendocrinology
  2. van den Bos, W. & Hertwig, R. (2016) Adolescents display distinctive tolerance to ambiguity and to uncertainty during risky decision making. Nature Sci. Rep. 7, 40962
  3. van den Bos, W., Rodriguez, C.A., Schweitzer, J. & McClure, S.M. (2015) Adolescent impatience decreases with increased fronto-striatal connectivity PNAS

** also read our Frontiers in Young Minds review: I want it now! the neuroscience of teenage impulsivity

# Social decision-making

Adolescence is also a period of major social reorientation. Earlier studies had already shown that there were massive structural changes during that period, as well as changes in activity during various cognitive tasks. However, the relation between brain development and social cognition was until then mostly overlooked. We applied game theoretical paradigms to study social interactions and social decisions while participants were in the MRI scanner. These studies revealed that during adolescence individuals are increasingly taking the perspective of others and become less self-focused. This was related to changes in dynamics of the so-called social brain network. Specifically, we consistently found an increased engagement of the temporal parietal junction (TPJ) with age, which was linked to increasingly complex responses in context of fairness and trust. We are now extending these findings by examining social interactions between individuals that have a specific social bond (e.g. friendship), and the relation between social behavior and the social environment.

  1. van den Bos, W., Van Dijk, E., Westenberg, P. M., Rombouts, S. A. R. B. & Crone, E. A. (2011a). Changing Brains, Changing Perspectives: The Neurocognitive Development of Reciprocity. Psychological Science, 22(1), 60-70.
  2. Güroğlu, B.*, van den Bos, W.*, Rombouts, S.A.R.B. & Crone, E. A. (2011) Dissociable brain networks involved in development of fairness considerations: Understanding intentionality behind unfairness. NeuroImage, 57(2), 634-641.* equal contribution
  3. Güroğlu, B., van den Bos, W., & Crone, E.A. (2014) Sharing and giving across adolescence: An experimental study examining the development of prosocial behavior. Frontiers in Psychology
My research statement (2017) on the BOLD blog from the Jacobs Foundation: